The attacks come a day after President Bashar al-Assad declared he would seek re-election in June.
Officials said the election was a sign Assad was unwilling to seek a political solution to the conflict.
Syria’s government and opposition will discuss prisoner swaps, local ceasefires and humanitarian aid.
More than 100,000 people have died in Syria's conflict, which began in early 2011.
Both nations said on Friday they wanted to renew efforts to negotiate peace in Syria.
Russia proposed that Syria hand over its chemical weapons for destruction.